Numerous industries have been maximising different types of sealers for machines and other types of assembly. For instance, an O-ring is a mechanical gasket designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly of two or more parts. Another example of a sealer is a washer, which is often used to distribute the load of a threaded fastener or serve as a spacer.
After repetitive use of a machine or parts, the seal used for them might fail due to different reasons. One, you should consider finding the root cause of the seal failure. Some factors that you may consider when starting a failure analysis include the hardware information, the way a seal is installed, application conditions, and the lifespan of the seal.
With the mentioned factors, your failure analysis will be much easier than ever before. Through the following basic failure diagnostics, you can easily reduce downtime and costly seal replacements.
The compression set of every material varies depending on its properties, lifespan and surrounding temperature. For seals, compression is defined as their ability to return to their original shape after the force applied to them is removed. If the seal has zero percent compression set, then it indicates that no permanent deformation has occurred. Meanwhile, a 100% compression set means that the seal no longer applies a force on the mating surface. Altogether, a compound with a low percentage of compression set means that the material is more resilient.
There are numerous potential factors that can affect the compression set of a compound. These factors include poor material properties, improper glands, fluid incompatibility, and higher than recommended temperature exposure for the material.
Extrusion and Nibbling
While the compression set is directly affected by the material properties and the surrounding environment, the occurrence of extrusion and nibbling shares a different story. This failure mode happens whenever a seal material deforms into the space between the bore and the outside of the tube, which can be referred to as the extrusion gap. It can also occur due to gland overfill. Gland overfill happens when the deformation from the seal compression fills the entire groove and then lips over into the extrusion gap.
The absence of extrusion gap on face seals makes them safe from the risk of this failure mode. On the other hand, radial seals can experience extrusion. Fortunately, the extrusion in radial seals can be remedied by reducing the clearance gap or by adding a back-up ring.
A lot of factors can affect seal extrusion damage. These factors include the magnitude of the differential pressure, radial extrusion gap clearance, defects at the extrusion gap corner, temperature, hydraulic pressure shock, and many more.
When an O-Ring is sliding and rolling in the groove, then it experiences spiral failure. This failure is often found on long stroke hydraulic piston seals and rod seals. Most of the time, this occurs in dynamic reciprocating O-Ring applications. The installation of O-Ring can also cause spiral failure right away. The root cause of spiral failure can be difficult to pinpoint. However, some factors that contribute to spiral failure include uneven surface finish, poor lubrication, side loading, eccentricity, improper installation, and many more. When spiral failure occurs, a series of deep spiral cuts will be present on the surface of the seal.
Knowing this basic failure diagnostics can help you determine and prevent impending seal failure ahead of time. To know more about seal failures, you can visit us at Gasketech. We manufacture and supply gaskets and sealing washers, extrusions, and mouldings for all industries.
Viton is a popular brand name of DuPont de Nemours, Inc. for synthetic rubber and fluoropolymer elastomer, which are typically used in O-rings, gaskets, seals, and other moulded or extruded products. One key property of using Viton fluoroelastomers is that they can perform and function well under extreme temperatures and harsh chemicals.
Uses and Material Grades
Materials from Viton can be used in a lot of industrial situations. They can be used in automotive and other transportation fuel applications that involve high concentrations of biodiesel. Some material grade of Viton gaskets and seals can even resist acidic biodiesel.
As mentioned, Viton gaskets and seals can be classified into material grades. These material grades or families vary in their resistance to permeation and property degradation that is caused by the exposure to chemicals and fluids.
Advantages of Viton Materials
One advantage of using Viton gaskets, seals, and other materials on industrial applications is that they can maintain good mechanical properties even if they are exposed to high temperatures. Exposure of Viton materials to a temperature ranging from 204°C to 316°C won’t drastically affect their overall elasticity
These Viton materials can also resist the effects of oil and chemical penetration and deterioration. Chemicals and fluids that Viton materials can withstand include oils, fuels, lubricants, and most mineral acids. Compared to any commercial rubber, materials from Viton can certainly provide the best fluid resistance in the market right now.
Aside from high temperatures, Viton materials can also resist compression. They can also withstand damaging elements in the environment such as atmospheric oxidation, sun, climatic conditions, fungus, and mould. Lastly, they possess good electrical properties and low burning properties.
Viton gaskets and seals can greatly help you with different industrial applications under high temperatures. To know more about their manufacturing process, you can visit us at Gasketech. We manufacture and supply all types of high-quality gaskets, sealing washers, extrusions, and moulding for all industries.
Different industries have been using gaskets to fill in the space or gap between two or more mating surfaces. Gaskets are generally included in numerous applications since they can prevent any leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression. They can also withstand high compressive loads, which can assure the longevity of the involved mating surfaces.
Gaskets have different types according to their properties. Some gaskets can work under extreme temperatures that make them suitable for specific situations. Other gaskets, however, can tolerate exposure to highly corrosive fluid. All these properties may vary on each gaskets depending on the material used for their fabrication.
Some materials that are used in making gaskets include paper, rubber, silicone, metal, felt, fibreglass, and plastic polymers. Since the overall properties of gaskets rely heavily on the materials used, let’s dive deeper into the subject of metallic and non-metallic gaskets.
Choosing Metallic Gaskets
As the name implies, metallic gaskets are fabricated from either a single metal or an alloy, a combination of metals. The properties of metals allow higher-quality surface sealing of gaskets when compared to non-metallic gaskets. Since they can naturally resist extreme temperatures, pressure, and chemical exposure, metallic gaskets are now widely used for medium- and high-pressure applications. High-temperature applications also utilise metallic gaskets.
The most popular variety of metallic gaskets is the ring-type-joint (RTJ) type. This type of gasket features a solid metal ring construction that comes in different cross-sections like oval, round, and octagonal. This same gasket has a passage hole that allows equalisation of pressure on both sides of the surface sealing. Other types of the metallic gasket are grooved gaskets, spiral wound gaskets, corrugated metal gaskets, and metal-jacketed gaskets.
Metallic gaskets are normally used in offshore oil and gas pipelines. They can also be used in heat exchangers, compressors, pumps, manholes, valves, and turbines.
Choosing Non-Metallic Gaskets
Non-metallic gaskets, on the other hand, are made from composite materials like glass fibre, mica sheet, ceramic fibre, elastomeric and fibre sheet, and compressed non-asbestos sheet. One great advantage of non-metallic gaskets over the metallic ones is that they have superior corrosion resistance. They can also be easily compressed under bolt load. However, this type of gasket cannot tolerate extreme levels of temperature and pressure.
Flat-face and raised-face flanges are the common companions of non-metallic gaskets when used in low-pressure applications. To be specific, full-face non-metallic gaskets are great for flat-face flanges, while flat-ring gaskets are suitable for raised-face flanges.
As mentioned, low-pressure applications benefit the most with non-metallic gaskets. Some low-pressure applications of non-metallic gaskets are pipe flanges, compressors, heat exchangers, and bonnet valves.
If you need a gasket that can work under extreme temperature and pressure, then you must choose the metallic ones. Alternatively, you must pick non-metallic gaskets if you will be using them with highly corrosive elements. To know more about these gaskets, you can talk to us at Gasketech.
Manufacturing and industrial companies use gaskets to fill and cover the space between two or more mating surfaces. They are usually made out of reliable and sturdy materials such as rubber, cork, paper, metal, copper, and foam. Gaskets are flexible, making them perform a wide variety of functionalities such as anti-vibration, packaging, hygiene, noise and sound reduction, and sealing.
While gaskets are made different from each other, you may still perform some kind of test to determine the quality of your gasket. One test that is commonly used is compression testing. Compression testing is used to assess the reaction and behaviour of a product or a material that is being compressed, squashed, crushed, or flattened.
When it comes to gaskets, there are a couple of reasons why compression testing is very important in gasket manufacturing.
Provides Quick Results
What is great about compression testing is that it can produce relevant results right away. If you have a lot of various design options for your gaskets, you can place them under compression testing to assess their qualities. The performance level of a specific design will be also produced from the results of the compression testing. After all, conducting compression testing allows you to know and review how a specific design of gasket holds up under different compression situations.
Saves Money and Time
Placing a sample gasket under compression testing can save a lot of money and time. Manufacturing tons of gaskets without any sort of testing can be risky and dangerous since you don’t have any idea if they will work. And if they don’t work, your manufacturing industry may have a hard time recovering from revenue loss.
So, taking the time to run some compression tests for your sample gaskets can certainly help you single out an effective gasket design. There might be some redesign and remanufacturing processes, but coming up with the best gasket design for manufacturing will help you gain more revenues in the long run.
The use of compression testing is very easy. If you place a gasket in the hot compression test cycle, you can determine right away the level of compression this specific gasket can take and hold. With compression testing, a gasket will not only receive pressure but also heat. As you test your gasket designs, you can easily determine the point and level where a gasket will fail. From the results, you can easily adjust some design flaws of your gasket to make sure that it will pass the succeeding compression tests.
Compression testing is very important in gasket manufacturing since it provides you all the information needed in improving your gasket design. For more information about gaskets, you can contact us at Gasketech. We have been manufacturing and supplying high-quality gaskets, sealing washers, and other products.
Industrial sectors have been maximising the use of flange gasket on their tools and equipment. Flange gaskets create a static seal between two flanges faces and fill the spaces and irregularities of these flange faces. Sections of pipes predominantly utilise these flange gaskets since they can effectively prevent liquids and gases from leaking.
Flange gaskets come in a lot of sizes, inside and outside diameters, and materials. When it comes to the material, flange gaskets have three categories, namely, non-metallic gaskets, semi-metallic gaskets, and metallic gaskets. The one that is always used in low temperature and pressure applications is the non-metallic gaskets.
Properties of Non-Metallic Gaskets
Non-metallic gaskets are composite sheet materials that are commonly used with low-pressure flat-face and raised-face flanges. They can be made up of graphite, rubber, PTFE, and reinforced fibre. These gaskets can easily compress with low tension bolting. To date, these gaskets are the most affordable gasket in the market.
Non-Metallic Gaskets Classification
The classification of non-metallic gaskets is based on the material used for their production. The following are the materials used to create different types of non-metallic gaskets as well as their characteristics.
Graphite gaskets only use graphite with a purity of 99% elemental carbon. This material composition preference is crucial so that the performance of the gasket is maximised. Usually, graphite gaskets are used and reinforced with stainless steel inserts. Expanded metals are one of the most common inserts for these gaskets since they optimise surface pressure distribution. These expanded metal graphite gaskets can ultimately replace metallic gaskets and resist a wide range of chemical exposure.
Rubber gaskets, on the other hand, are cut or punched to shape from industrial manufactured rubber sheets. This type of gasket has a lot of variations that can resist different elements. There are silicone gaskets that have excellent temperature properties. Another variation is the acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber that can resist chemicals, hydrocarbons, and oil. A natural rubber variation is known for its excellent recovery properties. If you are looking for a rubber gasket that has excellent resistance to oil, ozone, and weathering, then the achlorobutadiene rubber is for you.
PTFE gaskets have excellent anti-stick and dielectric properties that are helpful in industrial applications. This type of gasket has low leak rates and can effectively resist different types of chemicals. PTFE gaskets have very dense sealing materials and can adapt perfectly to the flanges.
Fibre Reinforced Gaskets
The fibre reinforced gaskets are cut or punched to shape out fibre reinforced sheet materials, which usually consists of fibres, fillers, and binders. This gasket’s properties rely on the quality and composition of the aforementioned materials. Fibre gaskets can be made from different types of fibres, such as aramide fibre, carbon fibre, cellulose fibre, glass fibre, and mineral fibre. These gaskets are fairly affordable and are easy to cut or punch to size.
Non-metallic gaskets have a different type of materials used that are suitable according to your needs. If you want to enquire about the availability of these gaskets, you can contact us now at Gasketech so that we can help you out.
There are specific components that must be installed when connecting pipes, valves, pumps, and other types of piping systems. Flanges and gasket are commonly found in different types of piping systems, and that they provide easy access for maintenance, inspection, and alteration. Flanges are usually welded or screwed with the help of a gasket in between to thoroughly seal them together.
Not all flanges and gaskets are created equal. In fact, there are certain differences that flanges and gaskets possess. These differences make these components suitable for a specific situation. Flanges can be divided into two types. This division also applies to the gaskets most commonly available in the market right now.
Faces of the Flanges
The differences of gaskets lie on the type of face a flange has. There are two types of flange faces, namely, raised face flanges and flat face flanges. From the name itself, the raised face flanges have a specific part that is somehow raised on the surface. The gasket surface of the raised face flanges is slightly raised above the bolting circle face. This raised surface allows the installation of different gasket designs, including flat ring sheet types and metallic composites.
Raised face flanges are frequently used in process plant applications. The purpose of these flanges is to concentrate more pressure on a smaller gasket area, and consequently, increase the pressure containment capability of the joint.
The flat face flanges, on the other hand, have the gasket surface and the bolting circle face positioned in the same plane. This positioning means that the flat face flanges are entirely flat, making these flanges never to be bolted to a raised face flange. One type of gasket, the full-face gasket, takes advantage of this type of flange to ensure that the flanges are tightly sealed together.
The Gasket Differences
As mentioned, gaskets are extremely important since they fill the space between two or more mating surfaces. They prevent any type of leak from or into the combined objects while under compression. The most common types of gaskets are ring-type gaskets and full-face gaskets.
A ring-type gasket is placed and installed inside of the flange bolts and around the pipe bore. It has no bolt holes and is typically used on raised face flanges since it can easily sit right on top of the flange. Due to its composition, it can be installed without disassembling the joint. When buying ring-type gaskets, a supplier only requires three measurements: the inside diameter that matches the pipe bore, the outside diameter that matches the raised flange face’s outside diameter, and their thickness.
Conversely, a full-face gasket covers the entire face of the flange and is normally used on flat face flanges. Full-face gaskets are easier to install since they have bolt holes, making the insertion and alignment to the flange bolts more convenient. The only downside of using these gaskets is that the joint must be dissembled first when installing the full-face gaskets. Ordering full-face gaskets requires the following specifications: the inside and outside diameter, the bolt circle diameter, and the number of the bolt holes. Gasket thickness and the preferred pressure tolerance are also asked by the supplier.
If you want to know more about these types of gaskets, then give us a call now at Gasketech. We manufacture and supply gaskets, washers, extrusions, and mouldings for all types of industries.